Dora Philiippine Kallmus was the first woman to be admitted on the theory courses of Vienna’s Graphic Training Institute. In 1905, she became a member of the Association of Austrian photographers and went on to establish her own studio in Vienna with Artur Benda. Working under the pseudonym Madame d’Ora, Kallmus established herself as a leading portrait photographer across Europe, with subjects including Josephine Baker, Coco Chanel, Tamara de Lempicka, and Colette. She deployed a typically neutral background with few, if any, props. All focus was channeled on the sitter’s expression, with pristine lighting ensuring clear contours, detailed textures, and striking fabric folds.